It is theorised that some cultures have ignored that males impregnate females.Procreation was sometimes even considered to be an autonomous 'ability' of women: men were essential to ensure the survival and defence of the social group, but only women could enhance and reintegrate it through their ability to create new individuals.Their children may also be more curious about the world around them and develop greater problem solving skills.The father-figure is not always a child's biological father and some children will have a biological father as well as a step- or nurturing father.
Roman law defined fatherhood as "Mater semper certa; pater est quem nuptiae demonstrant" ("The [identity of the] mother is always certain; the father is whom the marriage vows indicate").
Conception cannot be directly observed, whereas birth is obvious.
The extended time between the two events makes it difficult to establish the link between them.
Policies are increasingly targeting fatherhood as a tool of changing gender relations.
Fatherhood in Canada during the Interwar Period was a time of imposed change, led by state and expert advisement.
Biological fathers determine the sex of their child through a sperm cell which either contains an X chromosome (female), or Y chromosome (male).